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                     Jim Rediker - Nurseryman -  Arborist  - TDA Certified
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Asian Long-Horn Beetle
 
         (Anoplophora glabripennis):
A New Introduction
 
The Asian longhorn beetle was introduced in the United States from Asia. The first infestations were detected in Brooklyn and Amityville, New York in 1996. It is believed the beetle arrived from China and Korea in solid wood packing materials such as pallets and crates. The beetle has been intercepted at ports and found in warehouses throughout the United States.  While the beetle has some natural enemies in Asia, it has no natural enemies in the United States, making it a great threat to the nation's trees.

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) has been discovered attacking trees in the United States. Adult female beetles lay their eggs in openings in the bark. The larvae then bore tunnels into the tree, disrupting the vascular system, which carries water and nutrients throughout the tree. The larvae spend fall, winter and spring inside the tree, and then bore out of the tree as adults in the summer. This tunneling can eventually weaken and kill the tree.  Tunneling by beetle larvae girdles tree stems and branches. Repeated attacks lead to dieback of the tree crown and, eventually, death of the tree.

Signs of Infestation

The tunnels left behind are approximately 3 1/2 inches in diameter or larger with sap flowing out of the entry holes in the bark. The beetles also leave behind waste and sawdust at the base of a tree and in branch crotches. Yellowing leaves and leaf drop out of season are additional signs of the insect's presence.
 

Identification

Adult beetles are up to 1 1/2 inches long with antennae 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 times their body length. They are shiny black with white spots. Their antennae are also black with distinctive white stripes. Their plate- shaped feet are black with a whitish-blue upper surface.

This beetle is a serious pest in China where it kills hardwood trees in roadside plantings, shelterbelts, and plantations. In the United States the beetle prefers maple species (Acer spp.), including boxelder, Norway, red, silver, and sugar maples. Other known hosts are alders, birches, elms, horsechestnut, poplars, and willows. A complete list of host trees in the United States has not been determined. Currently, the only effective means to eliminate ALB is to remove infested trees and destroy them by chipping or burning. To prevent further spread of the insect, quarantines are established to avoid transporting infested trees and branches from the area. Early detection of infestations and rapid treatment response are crucial to successful eradication of the beetle.

General Information

The ALB has one generation per year. Adult beetles are usually present from July to October, but can be found later in the fall if temperatures are warm. Adults usually stay on the trees from which they emerged or they may disperse short distances to a new host to feed and reproduce. Each female is capable of laying up to 160 eggs. The eggs hatch in 10-15 days and the larvae tunnel under the bark and into the wood where they eventually pupate. The adults emerge from pupation sites by boring a tunnel in the wood and creating a round exit hole in the tree.

 
WHAT TO LOOK FOR:
 
 
1. Adult beetles. Individuals are ¾ to 1¼ inches long, with jet black body and mottled white spots on the back. The long antennae are 1½ to 2½ times the body length with distinctive black and white bands on each segment. The feet have a bluish tinge.   2. Oval to round pits in the bark. These egg-laying sites or niches are chewed out by the female beetle, and a single egg is deposited in each niche.
     
 
3. Oozing sap. Sap may flow from egg niches, especially on maple trees, as the larvae feed inside the tree.   4. Accumulation of coarse sawdust around the base of infested trees, where branches meet the main stem, and where branches meet other branches. This sawdust is created by the beetle larvae as they bore into the main tree stem and branches.
     
5. Round holes, 3/8 inch in diameter or larger, on the trunk and on branches larger than 1½ inches in diameter. These exit holes are made by adult beetles as they emerge from the tree.
 
 
Photo Sources: USDA Forsert Service,
USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
 
Prepared by: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Pivate Forestry, Radnor, PA
 
  
 
For more information about Asian longhorned beetle in the United States,

Contact: cell: 830.257.8871
                
email: jim.rediker@usa.net
                     Jim Rediker - Nurseryman -  Arborist  - TDA Certified
SCENIC HILLS NURSERY

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