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Cation Exchange Capacity - Colloids

To get started, let’s understand that “ions” are atoms or groups of atoms (molecules) which have an electrical charge. “Anions” have a negative (-) charge and “cations” (pronounced cat-eye-ons) have a positive (+) charge. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) refers to the negatively charges sites on the soil minerals and organic matter which attract and hold positively charged ions, including plant nutrients. These include the basic macro components of fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, sulfur and magnesium. There are thirteen elements, which are essential for plant growth. The micro or minor trace elements are every bit as important as the major elements, but are used in very small amounts. These include iron, manganese, zinc, boron, copper, molybdenum, and chlorine. Nickel is accepted as the 14th nutrient element derived from the soil.

In addition to mineral elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are essential elements in which plants take from the air and water. These are not included in with the fertilizer applications to the soil, but soil management practices have an effect on their availability.

Trees and plants take up nutrients from the soil either as cations or anions. Many nutrient elements are cations, and are attracted to negatively charges surfaces of small clay & organic
(humus) particles called colloids (+). This attraction is called adsorption by the tree roots. Generally, cations are held tightly enough on adsorption sites to restrict their loss through leaching. These cations can move from the adsorption (adhesion of molecules or dissolved substances to a surface) sites on colloids into the soil water solution (and vise versa) where they are available for root uptake and are also subject to leaching. Cations exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of the number of adsorption sites in a soil and is an important indicator of the soil’s ability to retain and supply cations for plant use. A soil with a low CEC has little ability to store nutrients and is susceptible to nutrient loss through leaching. Cations-exchange capacity can also be affected by soil pH. (See article Soil pH), and the solubility of mineral nutrients available to plants.

To gain the conception of what colloidal chemistry is, consider that all living tissues are simply great masses of cells-billions of them. The energy, the very life force of these cells, is obtained from certain minerals and metals. Colloidal chemistry is the science which converts those elements into particles so minute that they can be utilized by living cells, and nature supplies the cells with these elements in their colloidial form. Take a cube of iron measuring one inch on each edge, giving a total of six square inches. The electrical energy charge is on the surface; therefore, the greater the surface the greater the electrical charge. By colliodal chemistry that iron cube can be divided into colloid particles so minute that they are invisible. Hence instead of six square inches of surface emanating electrical energy, we have the equivalent of something like 127 acres colloidial surface area.

As cations of anions are adsorbed from the soil by tree roots, additional ions are released from their sites into the soil to maintain equilibrium. The effect is explainable in part by electrical action. Sick, dead and broken down cells are attracted to the colloids by Electro-magnetic force. The colloids carry those decayed or poisonous substances into the soil eliminating, exchanging and adapting to the needs of the colloids. The end result is nutrient and the essential elements of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen adsorption by the tree roots, transported to the leaves for photosynthesis through transpiration. (see article Autumn Colors)

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Contact: cell: 830.257.8871
                
email: jim.rediker@usa.net
                     Jim Rediker - Nurseryman -  Arborist  - TDA Certified
SCENIC HILLS NURSERY

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Cation Exchange Capacity - Colloids

To get started, let’s understand that “ions” are atoms or groups of atoms (molecules) which have an electrical charge. “Anions” have a negative (-) charge and “cations” (pronounced cat-eye-ons) have a positive (+) charge. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) refers to the negatively charges sites on the soil minerals and organic matter which attract and hold positively charged ions, including plant nutrients. These include the basic macro components of fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, sulfur and magnesium. There are thirteen elements, which are essential for plant growth. The micro or minor trace elements are every bit as important as the major elements, but are used in very small amounts. These include iron, manganese, zinc, boron, copper, molybdenum, and chlorine. Nickel is accepted as the 14th nutrient element derived from the soil.

In addition to mineral elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are essential elements in which plants take from the air and water. These are not included in with the fertilizer applications to the soil, but soil management practices have an effect on their availability.

Trees and plants take up nutrients from the soil either as cations or anions. Many nutrient elements are cations, and are attracted to negatively charges surfaces of small clay & organic (humus) particles called colloids (+). This attraction is called adsorption by the tree roots. Generally, cations are held tightly enough on adsorption sites to restrict their loss through leaching. These cations can move from the adsorption (adhesion of molecules or dissolved substances to a surface) sites on colloids into the soil water solution (and vise versa) where they are available for root uptake and are also subject to leaching. Cations exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of the number of adsorption sites in a soil and is an important indicator of the soil’s ability to retain and supply cations for plant use. A soil with a low CEC has little ability to store nutrients and is susceptible to nutrient loss through leaching. Cations-exchange capacity can also be affected by soil pH. (See article Soil pH), and the solubility of mineral nutrients available to plants.

To gain the conception of what colloidal chemistry is, consider that all living tissues are simply great masses of cells-billions of them. The energy, the very life force of these cells, is obtained from certain minerals and metals. Colloidal chemistry is the science which converts those elements into particles so minute that they can be utilized by living cells, and nature supplies the cells with these elements in their colloidial form. Take a cube of iron measuring one inch on each edge, giving a total of six square inches. The electrical energy charge is on the surface; therefore, the greater the surface the greater the electrical charge. By colliodal chemistry that iron cube can be divided into colloid particles so minute that they are invisible. Hence instead of six square inches of surface emanating electrical energy, we have the equivalent of something like 127 acres colloidial surface area.

As cations of anions are adsorbed from the soil by tree roots, additional ions are released from their sites into the soil to maintain equilibrium. The effect is explainable in part by electrical action. Sick, dead and broken down cells are attracted to the colloids by Electro-magnetic force. The colloids carry those decayed or poisonous substances into the soil eliminating, exchanging and adapting to the needs of the colloids. The end result is nutrient and the essential elements of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen adsorption by the tree roots, transported to the leaves for photosynthesis (see article Autumn Colors) through transpiration.

Return to previous page

Contact: cell: 830.257.8871
                
email: jim.rediker@usa.net
                     Jim Rediker - Nurseryman -  Arborist  - TDA Certified
SCENIC HILLS NURSERY

Home | Company | Services | Information Desk | Products | Info Request | Related Links | Contact
Jim Rediker - Experienced Arborist, TDA Certified - Licensed Nurseryman - TDA Licensed Applicator Consultant
Member: ISA,  Member: Better Business Bureau,  Free Estimates,  Insured & Bonded,  Cell:  830.257.8871
©Copyright 2012 Scenic Hills Nursery.  All Rights Reserved     Disclaimer
Maintained by the CYBERRANCH

 

Please use our icon to link to this site.